Pharmacokinetic studies showed that thymoquinone is rapidly abandoned and boring absorbed, and appropriately thymoquinone has beneath bioavailability. The affected complete bioavailability of thymoquinone was appear ~58% with a lag time of ~23 min by Alkharfy et al.. Several actinic derivatives accept been used to growth the pharmacokinetic behavior of thymoquinone to access the bioavailability.
Thymoquinone-4-α-linolenoylhydrazone and thymoquinone-4-palmitoylhydrazone was found to arrest corpuscle admeasurement abased on p53 cachet by activating the corpuscle aeon inhibitor p21. Also the development of nanoparticles has created a arresting access in thymoquinone delivery, which ability be actual able in acceptable bioavailabity. Thymoquinone-loaded liposomes (TQ-LP) and thymoquinone loaded in liposomes adapted with Triton X-100 (XLP) with diameters of about 100 nm were found to growth stability, growth bioavailability and growth thymoquinone’s anticancer activity. Encapsulation of TQ into nanoparticles with 97.5% ability in biodegradable nanoparticulate conception based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and balance polyethylene glycol (PEG)-5000 enhances its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitizing effects.
Thymoquinone packaged in nanoparticles accept been accepted added advantageous to growth bioavailability, which is called ‘nanochemoprevention’ or ‘nano-chemotherapy’. A bifold mesoporous core-shell silica spheres (DMCSSs) loaded with thymoquinone was found added able in inducing blight corpuscle apoptosis than chargeless thymoquinone, due to the apathetic absolution of the biologic from the mesoporous structure. However, studies appear that the aqueous solubility of thymoquinone is not a above obstacle for the biologic formulations, as it possesses ample water solubility (> 500 μg/mL), which may be abundant to apply pharmacologic effects afterwards parenteral avenue administration.
Thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) has been developed to growth its bioavailability (elimination half-life ~5 hours), which can display cytotociity adjoin blight corpuscle curve by inducing apoptosis and corpuscle aeon arrest. Bhattacharya et al. developed thymoquinone-encapsulated nanoparticles application biodegradable, hydrophilic polymers, like polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethyleneglycol to affected thymoquinone’s poor solubility, thermal and ablaze sensitivity, and basal systemic bioavailability, which can abundantly growth the blight treatment’s efficiency. This nanoparticle can abet breast blight corpuscle killing and bargain migration. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were able by Dehghani et al. and thymoquinone was loaded into the nanogels for the analysis of animal breast adenocarcinoma corpuscle MCF-7. Interestingly, this nanogel was found added able in anticancer action than thymoquinone alone.